See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The transition to adulthood is marked by new roles and responsibilities in such interrelated domains as education, employment, and family formation. This study investigates the capacity of adolescents on the verge of emancipation from the child welfare system to navigate this transition.
Eating behavior often becomes unhealthier during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, but not much is known about the factors that drive this change.
We assess the available evidence on this topic through a literature review and pay special attention to the research designs employed in the studies available as well as the modifiability of the factors investigated in previous research. We systematically conducted a scoping review by searching literature published in or after in three databases that described one or more factors associated with eating behavior or changes in eating behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood in the general population.
Our search identified eighteen articles meeting these inclusion criteria. The socio-ecological DONE Determinants of Nutrition and Eating framework, a recently developed dynamic framework of factors shaping dietary behavior, was used to structure and categorize the factors identified.
Furthermore, most factors discussed in the literature have been classified in the DONE framework as not easily modifiable.
Moreover, previous studies largely used static research designs and focused primarily on one specific population US freshmen. This systematic scoping review identified several gaps in the available literature that hinder insight into the drivers of eating behavior change during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood.
There is an urgent need for research on broader populations, employing dynamic repeated-measures designs, and taking modifiability of factors into account. Introduction The transition from adolescence to young adulthood, typically thought to occur between 18 and 25 years of age [ 1 ] is a time of transformation.
Important and life-changing transitions typically occur during this period, such as leaving high school to start college or working life, and leaving the parental home to establish an independent living arrangement.
This transitional life stage was, until recently, generally considered to be a low-risk period in life, in which people generally enjoy good health. This point of view has recently become more nuanced, however, and emerging adulthood has gained recognition as a period marked by critical health risks.
The main reason for this is that emerging adulthood seems to be associated with an increased risk for weight gain [ 45 ] and it has been argued that the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence is in fact larger among emerging adults than in any other age group for an overview, see [ 5 ].
The heightened risk of weight gain in this stage of life seems to be due, at least in part, to the fact that weight-related behavioral patterns are subject to substantial change throughout this period [ 5678 ].
Corroborating this assumption, it has been shown that changes in eating behavior such as increasing intake of snacks, more frequent breakfast skipping, and decreasing intake of fruits and vegetables are important contributors to weight gain during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood [ 4567 ].
These findings have recently instigated the development and implementation of various interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating specifically during this life stage [ 9 ]. Crucially, however, relatively little attention has been paid until now to the factors driving eating behavior during this transitional life stage [ 5 ], whereas one might argue that the development of effective interventions in fact hinges on the identification of the mechanisms driving the shift toward unhealthier eating behavior in emerging adults.
A Focus on Shaping Factors Whereas substantial evidence shows that emerging adulthood carries an increased risk for unhealthy eating [ 45678 ], not all emerging adults show a shift towards unhealthier eating or show it to the same degree [ 6 ].
This individual differentiation indicates that unhealthier eating behavior during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is not normative or unavoidable. We posit that, in order to better tailor interventions and to more effectively prevent unhealthy changes in eating behaviors during this critical transition period, it is of crucial importance to gain a better understanding of the factors driving eating behavior during this life stage see also [ 5 ].
This requires increased focus on the precursors of eating in emerging adulthood, that is, on the factors that shape eating behavior during this transitional period.
Through identifying the driving factors behind the eating behaviors of emerging adults, we can identify entry points for intervention and policy alike.
To date, research examining the factors shaping eating behavior in the transition from adolescence to adulthood is limited [ 5 ]. Nevertheless, there have been several attempts to gain insight into these factors.
In order to synthesize the available evidence about the factors shaping eating behavior during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, we conducted a scoping review of currently available literature.
This review accumulates evidence available about the factors driving eating behavior in emerging adulthood and organizes the factors that have been identified in the literature according to a socio-ecological framework of determinants of eating behavior, the multidisciplinary DONE determinants of nutrition and eating framework [ 10 ].
Furthermore, in order to inform future research and intervention planning, the type of research design employed in each study included in the review is recorded and the modifiability of the factors that is, the extent to which the factors are theoretically amenable to change [ 101112 ] identified in the review is discussed.
To our knowledge, this review constitutes the first systematic attempt at synthesizing the factors shaping eating behavior in emerging adulthood that have been uncovered in the literature thus far.
Based on the findings from the scoping review, limitations of the research that has been conducted on this topic until now are identified, highlighting the main gaps in the current body of knowledge.
Materials and Methods A scoping literature search was systematically performed in three databases: A scoping literature review [ 1314 ] has an exploratory character aimed at getting a grasp of the body of evidence available on a broad topic, so as to provide an overview of the type, quantity and quality of research available on a given topic and to identify future research needs [ 131516 ].
Another characteristic of scoping reviews is that although the process of literature gathering tends to be rapid e. We decided to focus our search on four concepts and formed search strings for each concept see Table 1 for exact search terms: Participants concept 1Outcomes concept 2Setting concept 3 and Study design concept 4.
Because including the latter two concepts simultaneously into one four-layered search yielded very few hits, we chose to conduct two separate three-layered searches, including concepts 1 and 2 plus either concept 3 or concept 4.
We restricted our search to articles published in English in or after the year The literature search was conducted in FMS and TD also screened and selected the records that came out of these respective databases, discussing any record that raised questions until agreement was reached.
Remaining doubts or disagreements were further discussed and resolved with the second author BR. Both authors involved in the search and selection process FMS and TD have extensive background in performing systematic literature searches, having been previously involved in multiple successful systematic literature reviews [ 18192021 ].
We maintained the following inclusion criteria:Mead wrote 2 books that relevant to a discussion of adolescence: Coming of Age in Samoa Field theory defines adolescence as a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. This transition is characterized by deeper and far-reaching changes, a faster rate of growth, and differentiation of the life space as compared with the preceding.
The transition from adolescence to young adulthood, typically thought to occur between 18 and 25 years of age  is a time of schwenkreis.comant and life-changing transitions typically occur during this period, such as leaving high school to start college or working life, and leaving the parental home to establish an independent living arrangement.
Sep 01, · Approaching the Transition to Adulthood: Distinctive Profiles of Adolescents Aging out of the Child Welfare System. During the transition from adolescence to adulthood, the transition to adulthood is a period of great change in developmental pathways.
Adolescence: a period needing special attention. Recognizing adolescence. Adolescence is a period of life with specific health and developmental needs and rights 1. How this transition from childhood to adulthood is defined and recognized differs between cultures and over time.
In the past it has often been relatively rapid, and in . Family Relationships From Adolescence to Early Adulthood Early adulthood (approximately ages 18 to 25) is a time of dramatic change.
Recent work documents marked variability in the timing and sequencing of life transitions such as finishing school, entering long-term romantic relationships and marriage, parenthood, and beginning a career (e.g.
Adolescence is a period that begins with puberty and ends with the transition to adulthood (approximately ages 10–20). Physical changes associated with puberty are triggered by hormones. Cognitive changes include improvements in .