Barbary pirates For three centuries up to the time of the Treaty, the Mediterranean Sea lanes had been preyed on by the North African Muslim states of the Barbary Coast TripoliAlgiersMorocco and Tunis through privateering government-sanctioned piracy.
American neo-isolationists thought that the alliance had outlived its purpose, but moderates of both parties shuddered to think of a world without it and recalled that its function had been not… Historical background After World War II inwestern Europe was economically exhausted and militarily weak the western Allies had rapidly and drastically reduced their armies at the end of the warand newly powerful communist parties had arisen in France and Italy.
What became known as the Iron Curtaina term popularized by Winston Churchillhad descended over central and eastern Europe. Further, wartime cooperation between the western Allies and the Soviets had completely broken down.
Each side was organizing its own sector of occupied Germany, so that two German states would emerge, a democratic one in the west and a communist one in the east. Truman second from left and Vice President Alben W. Barkley left look on. In the United States launched the Marshall Planwhich infused massive amounts of economic aid to the countries of western and southern Europe on the condition that they cooperate with each other and engage in joint planning to hasten their mutual recovery.
It was soon recognized, however, that a more formidable alliance would be required to provide an adequate military counterweight to the Soviets. By this time BritainCanada, and the United States had already engaged in secret exploratory talks on security arrangements that would serve as an alternative to the United Nations UNwhich was becoming paralyzed by the rapidly emerging Cold War.
Organization Spurred by the North Korean invasion of South Korea in Junethe United States took steps to demonstrate that it would resist any Soviet military expansion or pressures in Europe.
The North Atlantic Council, which was established soon after the treaty came into effect, is composed of ministerial representatives of the member states, who meet at least twice a year. At other times the council, chaired by the NATO secretary-general, remains in permanent session at the ambassadorial level.
The Military Committee, consisting of representatives of the military chiefs of staff of the member states, subsumes two strategic commands: NATO funding generally is not used for the procurement of military equipment, which is provided by the member states—though the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force, a fleet of radar-bearing aircraft designed to protect against a surprise low-flying attack, was funded jointly.
Beginning inthis policy was supplemented by the deployment of American nuclear weapons in western European bases.
President Ronald Reagan in Afterhowever, far-reaching economic and political reforms introduced by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev fundamentally altered the status quo. In July Gorbachev announced that Moscow would no longer prop up communist governments in central and eastern Europe and thereby signaled his tacit acceptance of their replacement by freely elected and noncommunist administrations.
In keeping with the first objective, NATO established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council ; later replaced by the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to provide a forum for the exchange of views on political and security issues, as well as the Partnership for Peace PfP program to enhance European security and stability through joint military training exercises with NATO and non-NATO states, including the former Soviet republics and allies.
Special cooperative links were also set up with two PfP countries: Some observers argued that the alliance should be dissolved, noting that it was created to confront an enemy that no longer existed; others called for a broad expansion of NATO membership to include Russia.
Most suggested alternative roles, including peacekeeping. By the start of the second decade of the 21st century, it appeared likely that the EU would not develop capabilities competitive with those of NATO or even seek to do so; as a result, earlier worries associated with the spectre of rivalry between the two Brussels-based organizations dissipated.
In the concurrent debate over enlargement, supporters of the initiative argued that NATO membership was the best way to begin the long process of integrating these states into regional political and economic institutions such as the EU.
Some also feared future Russian aggression and suggested that NATO membership would guarantee freedom and security for the newly democratic regimes. Opponents pointed to the enormous cost of modernizing the military forces of new members; they also argued that enlargement, which Russia would regard as a provocation, would hinder democracy in that country and enhance the influence of hard-liners.
This bond was subsequently subject to fraying, however, in large part because of reasons associated with Russian domestic politics. Events following the September 11 terrorist attacks in led to the forging of a new dynamic within the alliance, one that increasingly favoured the military engagement of members outside Europe, initially with a mission against Taliban forces in Afghanistan beginning in the summer of and subsequently with air operations against the regime of Muammar al-Qaddafi in Libya in early Most observers regarded that scenario as unlikely, however.North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries.
Established after WWII to defend against the Soviets. The North Atlantic Treaty, also referred to as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty that forms the legal basis of, and is implemented by, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C.
on 4 April The Washington Treaty – or North Atlantic Treaty – forms the basis of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – or NATO. The Treaty was signed in Washington D.C. on 4 April by 12 founding members. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: members and partners Map depicting the member countries and partner countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
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The heart of NATO is expressed in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April