See Article History Alternative Titles: The deaths of his father in 19 ce, of his mother, Vipsania Agrippinain 33, and of his two elder brothers, Julius Caesar Nero in 31 and Drusus Caesar in 23, were popularly ascribed to the machinations of Tiberius. Gaius and his three sisters survived. He was severely ill seven months after his accession.
Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries.
This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history.
Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight.
With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: The Roman Republic had no written constitution but was, rather, a system of agreed-upon procedures crystallized by tradition the mos maiorum, "the way of our ancestors".
Administration was carried out by mostly annually elected officials, answerable to the senate a senior council, but with no legislative powers and the people who, when constituted into voting assemblies, were the sovereign body of the state.
Precedent prescribed procedure and consensus set the parameters for acceptable behavior. Near the end of the second century BC, however, the system started to break down.
Politicians began to push at the boundaries of acceptable behavior, and in so doing set new and perilous precedents. Violence also entered the arena of domestic politics.
This long process of disintegration, completed a century later by Augustus, has been termed by modern scholars the "Roman Revolution. Politics had come to be dominated by violence and intimidation; scores were settled with clubs and daggers rather than with speeches and persuasion.
Powerful generals at the head of politicized armies extorted from the state more and greater power for themselves and their supporters. When "constitutional" methods proved inadequate, the generals occasionally resorted to open rebellion. Intimidation of the senate through the use of armies camped near Rome or veterans brought to the city to influence the voting assemblies also proved effective and was regularly employed as a political tactic from ca.
These generals also used their provincial commands to extract money from the locals as a way of funding their domestic political ambitions. As the conflict in the state wore on, popular assemblies, the only avenue for the passage of binding legislation in the Roman Republic, routinely ended in disorder and rioting.
The senatorial aristocracy, riven by internal disputes, proved incapable of dealing effectively with the mounting disorder, yet the alternative, monarchy, was not openly proposed by anyone. When civil war erupted between Pompey and Caesar in 49 BC, few could have been surprised.
These two men were the strongest personalities in the state, each in command of significant military forces, and they were mutually antagonistic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents.
During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate:The Empire Strikes Back Rome and us.
This one’s a photograph of a statue, an emperor, apparently, wearing his stone toga and his stone wreath.
in his new biography, “Caligula. Agrippina was a colorful figure with extensive and far-reaching imperial connections: she was the daughter of Claudius's brother, Germanicus, and a sister of Gaius Caligula, by whom she had been exiled for involvement in the conspiracy of Gaetulicus; moreover, she had been married before.
In the early days of his time as Emperor in AD 37, Caligula was hugely popular but his increasingly unpredictable and sadistic behaviour saw his treatment of the Senate, people and even the gods worsen.
Here are five facts about Rome’s tyrant, with some of the strangest incidents in his short .
We’ve all heard of the ancient Roman emperor who made his senator a horse, or the one who “fiddled while Rome burned.” But when it comes to the nuttiness of some of Rome’s emperors, that’s the least of it.
Here’s our list of the top five wackiest rulers of the Roman empire. Some might. The emperor Caligula was one of the strangest and cruelest rulers that ever lived, and most of what is known about his reign comes from Suetonius.
The first six months of his reign appear to have been moderate and successful; but after that, he fell into a spiral of sadism, sexual perversity, and plain insanity that made him one of the most.
Caligula, byname of Gaius Caesar, in full Gaius Caesar Germanicus, (born August 31, 12 ce, Antium, Latium [Italy]—died January 24, 41, Rome), Roman emperor from 37 to 41 ce, in succession after Tiberius. Caligula effected the transfer of the last legion that had been under a senatorial proconsul (in Africa) to an imperial legate, thus.