History[ edit ] Business ethics reflect the norms of each historical period. As time passes, norms evolve, causing accepted behaviors to become objectionable. Business ethics and the resulting behavior evolved as well. Business was involved in slavery   colonialism  and the cold war.
Through this behavior arise personal values, familial values, cultural values, intellectual values, religious values, aesthetic values, architectural values, gastronomic values-the list is endless.
Human existence is value-laden. Ethics studies moral and ethical values.
What distinguishes ethics and other disciplines, such as religion or the social sciences, that might also examine morals or moral codes is that, as a philosophical discipline, ethics relies upon the same analytic procedures as other philosophical disciplines.
Where religion relies upon scriptural authorities and the social sciences upon description and observation, ethics questions, probes, argues, analyzes and evaluates. As with most philosophical issues and problems, however, there are no universal solutions i. As a philosophical discipline, ethics is divisible into theoretical and practical ethics.
Metaethics then focuses on and analyzes moral language. Common metaethical questions include: Since the focus in metaethics is on language and under what conditions ethical statements can be true or false, metaethical theories propose no claims about what particular actions are good, right or moral.
Metaethics provides no practical guidance in moral or ethical matters. As an illustration consider the claim that what is moral is whatever produces happiness. Non-Cognitivist theories are metaethical theories that argue against the claim that ethical terms are informative and rest to certain facts about the universe or human nature, i.
The ultimate purpose then is to devise a ethical code that provides reasonable and reliable guidelines to assess moral situations and determine correct moral behavior.
To this end most normative ethical theories appeal to moral principles that are universal i. The questions that normative ethical theories consider include: Is it ever moral to lie? Are there absolute moral obligations? Are promises moral duties?
The principal divisions within normative ethics are teleological ethical theories, deontological ethical theories, and relativistic ethical theories. Teleological theories base their moral evaluations and principles upon the actual or possible consequences that actions produce, while deontological theories focus on moral duties and the intentions that motivate an action in their moral evaluations and principles.
Relativistic theories represent more radical positions that argue that there are no universal or absolute moral principles. To realize this critical purpose, ethics whether metaethics or normative ethics relies upon logical analysis and argumentation.
What distinguishes logical arguments, in general, and ethical arguments, in particular, is that in addition to definitions and factual statements some premises, as well as the conclusion, in an ethical argument will represent normative claims.
Normative claims then include: While the differences between definitions and either normative statements and factual statements are obvious, the difference between normative statements and factual statements is perhaps more problematic.
To illustrate the difference consider the statements: The Parthenon is in Athens. Spousal abuse is immoral.
Statement 2 is a normative statement that claims that a certain behavior is immoral. Were this all that 2 alleges, the claim that there are dramatic differences between 1 and 2 might seem questionable.
What distinguishes 2 is what it implies, i. Thus 1 describes what is the case and 2 prescribes what ought to be case. The difference ought to be quite obvious, normative statements express value or evaluative judgments, i.
There are no analogous judgments in factual statements. Since there other values than ethical values, there can also be normative statements other than ethical normative statements. The value judgment here though is aesthetic, rather than moral.
What distinguishes non-ethical and ethical normative statements then, is that in ethical normative statements the value judgments concern moral behavior.Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business schwenkreis.com applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.
These ethics originate from individuals, organizational statements or. Programme examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad, presented by distinguished writers, journalists and academics.
Our experiences and perspectives are valuable assets to our journalism. We enjoy the right to robust personal lives, yet we accept some unique professional obligations and limitations.
iMediaEthics is a not-for-profit, non-partisan news site that publishes the latest media ethics news and investigations into ethical lapses. Ethics and Entertainment: Essays on Media Culture and Media Morality [Howard Good, Sandra L.
Borden] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. As modern media shift from the distribution of information to its creation, a fresh inquiry into the ethics of media is needed.
This collection of 19 essays provides useful perspectives for both . Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that defends that we should act in ways that bring about as much happiness as possible in the world.