Death Mask of Tutankhamun The death mask of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun is made of gold inlaid with colored glass and semiprecious stone. Nefertiti This painted limestone bust of the ancient Egyptian queen Nefertiti dates from about bc Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
An elegant long white gown enfolds her and shows the straps of another garment beneath, also revealing an elaborate collar. Her arms are folded across her chest. Perhaps they represent a green stone, although, in their present coloration, one could easily mistake them for diamonds.
Diamonds would not be discovered for another 3, years. Refer to the web page at http: No one knows the reason. The painted colors were stylized according to artistic standards; the paints do not reflect their actual colors.
|Nofret | Revolvy||When he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his own royal name to Akhenaten.|
|Egyptian Art History (Old Kingdom Through Assyria) Timeline | Preceden||It is here that Mariette found the famous life-size painted limestone statues. They were discovered here at their mastaba at Meidum.|
Their anatomical features, and probable true colors, would easily make them citizens of modern Europe or North America.
They could walk our streets as white people without a second glance. The statues were discovered in by Albert Daninos, an assistant to the French explorer and early archeologist, Auguste Mariette.
Their burial in a mastaba located near the pyramid of Meidum shows they were members of the royal family of the Fourth Dynasty. Since it is believed Sneferu built the pyramid scholars assume they were his children, but this had not been verified from existing records. The title given to Nofret might imply she was not a member of the royal family.
The most outstanding feature of the statues is that they both retain their lifelike inlaid eyes of crystal which stunned the Egyptian workmen who first opened the tomb and saw them staring out.
In the torch light of the dark tomb they looked alive. The workmen fled in terror.
In attempt to show the color of the eyes I offer these repeated illustrations. The rock crystal used for the eyes was a blue-violate color. Note that the appearance of the painted skin colors varies according to the photographic process. A technical description of the manufacture of the eyes was offered by Jay Enoch from the School of Optometry at the University of California at Berkeley.
Following are excerpts from a lecture he presented to the American Research Center in Egypt, from Northern California.
The summary was provided by Al Berens. Trained as an optical specialist, Dr. Kathleen Keller and Dr. Carol Redmount trying to turn up answers to this interesting puzzle. These early lenses appear fully formed about BC at Meidum in the famous statues of Rahotep and his wife Nofret and reappear sporadically in small statuary throughout the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.
The peak of development of these lenses was reached circa BC. The last Old Kingdom example being that of Mitri. Another Fifth Dynasty statue, that of the funerary Priest Kaemked, had eye structures where the rock crystal lenses were replaced with obsidian, a dark volcanic glass.
In the Sixth Dynasty, there are no known examples of these eye structures.
King Hor Note the intensity of the blue eyes. Continuing with the lecture by Jay Enoch: The composition of these eyes is a lens of polished rock crystal either alpha silica or fused silica, formerly known as crystalline quartz and fused quartz which had a convex front surface and a near hemispherical concave ground pupil surface in a flat iris plane normally covered with resin at the rear of the lens.
These are set into the statue in copper early forms or bronze late form structures which simulate painted eyelids. Resins sometimes partially or fully obscure the pupillary aperture. The structures of these eyes indicate at a minimum a very advanced understanding of the anatomy of the eye for that time.
The early examples of Nofret and Rahotep have well developed pupillary structures with thick lenses and a point as part of the pupillary concave ground rear lens, as did the reserve eye E The statue of King Hor has a ring in that ground surface instead of a point and the lens seems not as clear.
Enoch noted that Late Period lenses found by Flinders Petrie at Tanis are simply not in the same class as these much earlier examples.
Where did the technologies for these eyes develop and why were they permanently abandoned are important questions which also need further study. Certainly the Egyptians had learned to work hard stones early in their civilization Dr.The Funerary Statues of Prince Rahotep and Nofret, His Wife At the beginning of Old Kingdom Egypt, a rather rapid development of characteristics that defined classical Egyptian art took place.
Later works would strictly adhere to these guidelines. In relief and painting, the human figure is schwenkreis.com Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
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No, schwenkreis.com · Prince Rahotep has six columns of text, naming his titles and duties, with columns three and six, each ending with his name, Ra-Hotep. Nofret has identical texts, one column both right and left. Her name appears at the bottom, with the determinative for ‘women’.schwenkreis.com The 2 statues, Nofret and Rahotep.
Prince Rahotep's statue has six columns of text, naming his titles and duties, with columns three and six, each ending with his name, Ra-Hotep. Nofret has identical texts, one column both right and left.
Her name appears at the bottom. Beautifully preserved life-size painted limestone funerary sculptures of Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret. (Old Kingdom). Photo: Dr.
Amy Calvert. Beautifully preserved life-size painted limestone funerary sculptures of Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret. Note the lifelike eyes of inlaid rock crystal (Old Kingdom).
Many statues were schwenkreis.com