The Mongols ruled with a strong sense of justice, summed up in their Yasa code and emphasized ability over lineage. The Mongol Empire brought peace, stability, and unity to large tracts of the known world and practiced religious tolerance to a remarkable degree at a time when conformity to religious doctrine was rigidly enforced in much of Europe.
Organized government is basically non-anarchy.
It could be anything from a council of elders or chiefs that ruled many of the worlds largest farming villages to a complex modern democracy with different areas of government balancing the others.
This is the local level; each parish is headed by pastor, possibly assisted by other clergy. A parish has a council, a group of people elected the people; the council advises the clergy on almost all parish matters.
The parish is where most Catholics experience Church through such things as worship, Scripture groups, youth organisations, funerals, weddings and social gatherings. Parishes are grouped into a diocese, which is headed by a bishop who is regarded as the spiritual father of the diocese.
It is his calling to make sure things run smoothly in his area. If there are quite a few dioceses in a country, they are arranged into geographical provinces, each headed by an archbishop and honorary title.
The province simply provides the opportunity for dioceses to collaborate. Sometimes their bishops make a joint statement on an issue that affects their area in a particular way e.
This refers to all the bishops of a particular country. They are responsible for a variety of matters including, but not limited to: Canon Law states that a boy may not marry until he is 16 and girl until she is 14; a national conference can establish its own age limits.
The Roman Curia comprises several departments, each responsible for given aspect of the Church on a universal level such as: Each department is headed by a cardinal; the cardinals function as close advisors to the Pope.
It is also their job to select a new pope after the present one dies. The Catholic Church is organized and governed by the Holy Spirit. In human terms, she has a Pope, a large number of bishops who are each in charge of a diocese or geographical area, and within those dioceses are many priests.
The Magisterium is the teaching arm or the Church. The official teachings of the Catholic faith can be found in print or online easily.
Do a google search for Catechism of the Catholic Church. Be aware that there is a vast gulf between doctrine official teaching and disciplines the rituals and beliefs of various Catholics through the years.
For example, altar girls are a "new" thing, but are only a discipline, not a doctrine. The belief in the Trinity is a doctrine, and therefore unchangeable.
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For more specifics I can recommend the following book: Also the site Catholicity. Hope this helps How were US colonial governments organized?
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