Share Human Rights Watch Prior to the conflict, the primary school enrollment rate in Syria was 99 percent and lower secondary school enrollment was 82 percent, with high gender parity. However, these children represent just 13 percent of the Syrian refugee school-aged population in Turkey. The vast majority of Syrian children in Turkey live outside refugee camps in towns and cities, where their school enrollment rate is much lower—inonly 25 percent of them attended school. Some children in the 50 families that Human Rights Watch interviewed for this report had lost as many as four years of education, while others, too young for school when the war broke out inhad never set foot in a school building.
Rashid, and Laurent Elder Pan Asia Networking, IDRC, Canada Abstract Despite improvements in educational indicators, such as enrolment, significant challenges remain with regard to the delivery of quality education in developing countries, particularly in rural and remote regions.
In the attempt to find viable solutions to these challenges, much hope has been placed in new information and communication technologies ICTsmobile phones being one example. This article reviews the evidence of the role of mobile phone-facilitated mLearning in contributing to improved educational outcomes in the developing countries of Asia by exploring the results of six mLearning pilot projects that took place in the Philippines, Mongolia, Thailand, India, and Bangladesh.
In particular, this article examines the extent to which the use of mobile phones helped to improve educational outcomes in two specific ways: Analysis of the projects indicates that while there is important evidence of mobile phones facilitating increased access, much less evidence exists as to how mobiles promote new learning.
Mobile phones; mobile learning; distance learning; educational outcomes; information and communication technologies; new learning Introduction For quite some time, the international development community has emphasized the paramount role of education in bringing about sustainable socio-economic development in the South.
Goal 2 of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals MDGs aims to achieve universal primary education for children everywhere, boys and girls alike, by Significant challenges remain, however.
Similar challenges confront secondary and tertiary education. Inequalities in access to education continue to pose major barriers in the developing world, and the delivery of cost-effective and quality education remains a persistent problem.
In the attempt to find viable solutions to these problems, much hope has been placed in new information and communication technologies ICTs. It is believed that ICTs can empower teachers and learners by facilitating communication and interaction, offering new modes of delivery, and generally transforming teaching and learning processes.
Of the many different forms of ICTs, mobile phones are thought, for several reasons, to be a particularly suitable tool for advancing education in developing regions.
First, mobiles phones are the most prevalent ICT in the developing world, and the penetration rate is rising rapidly. In Asia, mobile penetration has doubled within a short span of time; inaverage penetration was There is, therefore, less need for new physical infrastructure such as roads and phone wires, and base-stations can be powered via generators in places where there is no electrical grid Economist, Finally, in addition to voice communication, mobile phones allow the transfer of data, which can be particularly useful for delivering educational content over long distances.
The concept of mobile learning mLearning — understood for the purposes of this article as learning facilitated by mobile devices — is gaining traction in the developing world. The number of projects exploring the potential of mobile phone-facilitated mLearning in the developing world is steadily growing, spurred in part by the use of mobile technology in the educational sector in the developed world which has expanded from short-term trials on a small scale to large-scale integration.
However, there remains a lack of analysis that brings together the findings of the rising number of mLearning projects in the developing world. With the increasing attention now being given to the role of mobiles in the educational sector in developing countries, there is a need at this juncture to take stock of the available evidence of the educational benefits that mobile phones provide in the developing world.
Consequently, this article explores the results of six mLearning projects that took place in several developing countries in Asia — the Philippines, Mongolia, Thailand, India, and Bangladesh — both because most developing-country mLearning interventions are being undertaken in Asia and because developments in Asia seem to indicate that the region could become the global leader in educational uses of mobiles Motlik, In exploring how mobile phone-facilitated mLearning contributes to improved educational outcomes, this article examines two specific issues: Of note, the projects reviewed deal with both formal and non-formal education as defined by Dighe, Hakeem, and Shaefferp.
The structure of the article continues as follows.
The article then examines six pilot projects that involved the use of mobile phones for education in developing countries in Asia, analyzing the pilot projects in order to determine whether the supposed benefits that the literature outlines hold true in the developing world.
The article concludes with a discussion of the potential of mobile phone-facilitated mLearning as well as with indications for possible future areas of research. Theories of Mobile Learning The literature on mLearning points to a variety of benefits that mobile phones could have on the educational sector.
For heuristic purposes, the impacts of mobile phones on educational outcomes that are identified in the mLearning literature can be classified into two broad categories.
On the one hand, mobiles supposedly impact educational outcomes by improving access to education while maintaining the quality of education delivered. On the other hand, mobiles purportedly impact educational outcomes by facilitating alternative learning processes and instructional methods collectively known as new learning.
The Role of Mobiles in Improving Access to Education In theory, mLearning increases access for those who are mobile or cannot physically attend learning institutions — those who would not otherwise be able to follow courses in a traditional educational setting due to the constraints of work, household activities, or other competing demands on their time.
MLearning makes education more accessible in that it enables learners to pursue their studies according to their own schedule. The portability of mobile technology means that mLearning is not bound by fixed class times; mLearning enables learning at all times and in all places, during breaks, before or after shifts, at home, or on the go.Laurent Elder Pan Asia Networking, IDRC Canada Laurent Elder leads IDRC’s Pan Asia Networking (PAN) program, which studies the positive and negative impacts of the information society on Asian countries in order to help communities make the best use of information and communication .
Human Rights Watch. Prior to the conflict, the primary school enrollment rate in Syria was 99 percent and lower secondary school enrollment was . The design and applications of traffic control devices used in temporary traffic control zones are described in this chapter.
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Laurent Elder Pan Asia Networking, IDRC Canada Laurent Elder leads IDRC’s Pan Asia Networking (PAN) program, which studies the positive and negative impacts of the information society on Asian countries in order to help communities make the best use of information and communication technologies.