The steam engine was the energy behind the most advanced textile inventions, such as the spinning mule and the power loom. It symbolized the transition from human power in homes to machine power in factories. Moreover, the steam engine revolutionized transportation when it was applied to locomotives and ships.
Summary of the Factory Acts Children 8 and younger could not work in factories. Children between years could work no more than 9 hours a day.
Children between years could work no more than 12 hours a day. Children could not work at night. Women could not work more than 12 hours a day and 9 hours on Sunday. Accidental death had to be reported to a doctor and investigated.
Machines had to be fenced in to decrease injuries to children. Children under age 10 had to attend school. The Education Act made school compulsory for children up to age The Education Act made school mandatory for children up to age Responses to Public Health Challenges You read earlier about the ineffective preindustrial medicinal practices that lingered into the 19th century.
Poorly educated doctors still bled patients, consulted astrology for treatment, and often did more harm than good. These medieval practices became appallingly insufficient in the dense working-class neighborhoods of the new industrial cities, which became, with theirpoor sanitation, breeding grounds for diseases.
Fortunately, healthcare did gradually improve during the Industrial Revolution through advances in science and technology that focused on preventions and cures. Eventually, sound scientific research and experimentation established the basis for a professional medical community.
During the s and s, diagnostic aids that doctors typically use today—the stethoscope, the ophthalmoscope, and the thermometer —came into common use.
Microscopes improved enough to allow for the examination of microorganisms. During the s and s doctors began to use preventive inoculations to systematicallycontrol contagious diseases.
And by the end of the 19th century, hospitals began to use general anesthesia and antiseptic, which allowed physicians more carefully to perform surgery and greatly reduced the amount of hospital deaths Haley. Perhaps the most dramatic example of a scientific breakthrough occurred at a drinking well in London in A physician, John Snow, traced an epidemic outbreak of cholera back to a specific well in the Soho neighborhood of central London.
Snow applied the scientific method to the situation and hypothesized that cholera spread through the use of tainted water. So he made a detailedmap showing where victims lived in the area: The dot map showed that greater distance from the well meant fewer incidents of plague.
This cholera map provided conclusive proof of how the disease spread it was later discovered that the well had been dug just two feet from an old sewage pit.
The epidemic subsided soon after the city disabled the pump. Snow also demonstrated that households getting water from downstream pumps—infected by nearby sewers—suffered a death rate fourteen times greater than those that pulled water from upstream pumps.In the centuries before the Industrial Revolution, the quality of iron and the process of refining it had changed little in Great Britain.
Iron had been used for agricultural tools, chains, locks, bolts, nails, horse stirrups, scythes, sickles, and anchors. The ‘industrial revolution’: interpretations from to the present French, rather than British, industrial revolution had occurred, and writers from the society’.8 Admittedly, this account of ‘revolution’ within British society was built.
equated with literacy and formal schooling. In fact, detailed accounts of African peoples by anthropologists leave one in no doubt that African societies did possess a kind of customary education, a system which worked reasonably well, given limits imposed by the society within which it had to operate.
The pestilential human rookeries of early industrial towns. Britain’s population grew from 6 million to 18 million between and The population of London went from , in to 1,, forty years later. In , only 15 percent of the population lived in . Britain, and young Britain in particular, has handed over “control of its culture and vocabulary to Washington, New York and Los Angeles”.
It is, Engel argues, “self-imposed serfdom”: A country that outsources the development of its language – the language it developed over hundreds of years – is a nation that has lost the will to live.
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