What are lagoon systems? Lagoons are pond-like bodies of water or basins designed to receive, hold, and treat wastewater for a predetermined period of time. If necessary, they are lined with material, such as clay or an artificial liner, to prevent leaks to the groundwater below. In the lagoon, wastewater is treated through a combination of physical, biological, and chemical processes.
History[ edit ] The history of production and operation systems began around B. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred Operation management process design B. It was during this time that the Egyptians started using planningorganizationand control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids.
In large cities, on the other hand, inasmuch as many people have demands to make upon each branch of industry, one trade alone, and very often even less than a whole trade, is enough to support a man: It follows, therefore, as a matter of course, that he who devotes himself to a very highly specialized line of work is bound to do it in the best possible manner.
This hierarchical organization in which people were divided into classes based on social position and wealth became known as the feudal system. Although a large part of labor was employed in agriculture, artisans contributed to economic output and formed guilds.
The guild system, operating mainly between andconsisted of two types: Although guilds were regulated as to the quality of work performed, the resulting system was rather rigid, shoemakersfor example, were prohibited from tanning hides.
They provided service to the nobility for cooking, cleaning and entertainment. Court jesters were service providers. The medieval army could also be considered a service since they defended the nobility.
The industrial revolution was facilitated by two elements: Division of labor has always been a feature from the beginning of civilizationthe extent to which the division is carried out varied considerably depending on period and location.
Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade. It was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10, muskets.
Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product e. Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used.
InFrederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job. He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work.
The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems PMTS. Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task.
PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements e. PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work. The Gilbreths took advantage of taking motion pictures at known time intervals while operators were performing the given task.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented. In the U. Services were largely local in nature except for railroads and telegraph and owned by entrepreneurs and families. Ransom Olds was the first to manufacture cars using the assembly line system, but Henry Ford developed the first auto assembly system where a car chassis was moved through the assembly line by a conveyor belt while workers added components to it until the car was completed.
During World War II, the growth of computing power led to further development of efficient manufacturing methods and the use of advanced mathematical and statistical tools. This was supported by the development of academic programs in industrial and systems engineering disciplines, as well as fields of operations research and management science as multi-disciplinary fields of problem solving.
While systems engineering concentrated on the broad characteristics of the relationships between inputs and outputs of generic systems, operations researchers concentrated on solving specific and focused problems.
The synergy of operations research and systems engineering allowed for the realization of solving large scale and complex problems in the modern era. Recently, the development of faster and smaller computers, intelligent systemsand the World Wide Web has opened new opportunities for operations, manufacturing, production, and service systems.
Industrial Revolution[ edit ] Marshall's flax mill in Holbeck. The textile industry is the prototypical example of the English industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution and Productivity improving technologies historical Before the First industrial revolution work was mainly done through two systems: In the domestic system merchants took materials to homes where artisans performed the necessary work, craft guilds on the other hand were associations of artisans which passed work from one shop to another, for example:This informational booklet is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of a particular standards-related topic.
This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health schwenkreis.comer, because interpretations and . This course is intended for those who wish to develop specialist management expertise in the rapidly growing field of information systems in construction, digital project delivery and virtual design and construction.
Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements.
The training methodology is interactive with group exercises and is suitable for all employees involved in maintenance and operations management.
management Process design Supply network design Layout and flow Process technology Job design Product/service design. 2 Nature and purpose of the design activity produced by an operation on one hand, and the process type used to produce products and services on the other.
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