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Women are overwhelmingly the victims of sexual assault and rape, while men are nearly always the perpetrators. The vast majority of women are sexually assaulted by men with whom they are acquainted.
Women are far less likely to report a rape or assault when they know their assailant, thus instance of sexual assaults are greatly under-reported. This essay examines a number of reasons why women fail to report an assault to formal support agencies and examines some of the ways in which social services agencies can reach women in need of support.
This article also discusses rape prevention programs that are effective in reducing instances of sexual assault, including programs that educate college students on the dangers of alcohol and its association with assault.
In addition, the gender role beliefs that play a role in how rape is perceived by men and women, particularly when there is a relationship between the victim and the perpetrator are investigated.
A look into the continued study and research regarding rape is also included, specifically the ability of such research to identify risk populations and risk factors as well as the type and format of education required to counter the effects of sexual assault.
The overwhelming majority of victims, Sexual assault policies essay, are women who have been victimized by men Franiuk, Rape is defined as penetration or attempted penetration, but the definition of sexual assault is broader.
Completed or attempted penetration; Abusive sexual contact without penetration; Non-contact sexual abuse harassment and voyeurism. The definition also extends to acts of rape perpetrated during war, sex trafficking, and female genital mutilation Basile et al. This essay is limited to a discussion of the three bulleted points above.
Consent is a critical factor when determining if sexual assault has occurred. Non-consent or ambiguous consent cannot be construed as affirmative consent.
Victims of sexual assault may not be able to give consent due to age, illness, or impairment or may be intimidated through physical violence or threats Basile et al.
Historically, rapes and sexual assaults were believed to be perpetrated against women by strangers, but current data shows that women are much more likely to be sexually assaulted by men with whom they are acquainted. In fact, estimates suggest that 82 percent of all victims of sexual assault know their assailant Basile et al.
At-Risk Populations The majority of first-time rape victims are young; 71 percent of all rapes occur before the victim reaches the age of eighteen. Young women between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four are the most at risk for being raped Feminist Majority Foundation, Although women are susceptible in almost any situation, a college campus has unique elements that contribute to higher rates of sexual assault Franiuk, College women report they "often feel emotionally and psychologically coerced into sex" Feminist Majority Foundation, A study of 3, college women surveyed indicated that more than 50 percent reported being sexually victimized and 15 percent were victims of rape.
The statistics were re-affirmed by subsequent and studies Franiuk, Colleges have higher rates of sexual assault than non-college settings because of the prevalence of Franiuk, Alcohol; Men and women living in close proximity; Increased exposure to others having sex.
Many trends are apparent and disturbing when it comes to sexual assault: Women are far less likely to report instances of assault if the assailant is known to them. Since only 15 percent of rapes are committed by strangers, this statistic is likely to indicate that only a small number of sexual assaults actually get reported.
Intoxication clouds judgment and causes uncertainty about what has actually happened. Responding to Sexual Assault through Education Researchers and sociologist believe that heightened awareness and education for both men and women can reduce the instances of sexual assault at colleges and universities.On September 28, , Governor Jerry Brown signed legislation that requires colleges and universities receiving state funds to adopt sexual assault policies that include affirmative consent as the key element in determining whether sexual activity was consensual.
Dec 07, · Sexual assault on campus is a serious problem. But efforts to protect women from a putative epidemic of violence have led to misguided policies that infringe on the civil rights of men. US Army Spc. Natasha Schuette, 21, was sexually assaulted by her drill sergeant during basic training and subsequently suffered harassment by other drill sergeants after reporting the assault at Fort Jackson, South Carolina.
For a string of vivid reports revealing the perverse, punitive and cruel treatment given to sexual assault victims at Brigham Young University, one of .
Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment The gendered nature of sexual violence is well documented in academic research, organizational and policy studies, and government documents.
Viewpoints on why men are responsible for the vast majority of rapes and cases of sexual harassment, with the victims being largely women and girls, often clash in the.
YALE LAW & POLICY REVIEW "Only Yes Means Yes": An Essay on University Policies Re-garding Sexual Violence and Sexual Assault Janet Napolitano* INTRODUCTION.